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The Real Reason Manufacturers Demand Recycled Plastic

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The Real Reason Manufacturers Demand Recycled Plastic

In a world allegedly more aware of its environmental impact, governments and industries seek sustainable solutions. One measure which has gained traction is the plastic tax. This tax aims to reduce plastic waste by incentivising producers to use more post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics. Let’s explore how the plastic tax affects plastic bottle producers and encourages them to use PCR over virgin plastic. We’ll also look at whether all recycled plastic is utilised effectively.

Understanding Plastic Tax

The plastic tax is a financial charge on manufacturers who produce or import plastic packaging with insufficient recycled content. This tax aims to cut the use of virgin plastics, which are made from fossil fuels and harm the environment. By imposing this tax, governments push manufacturers towards more sustainable practices.

The Financial Impact on Manufacturers

For plastic bottle producers, the plastic tax creates a financial incentive to use more PCR. Virgin plastic, made from new petrochemical resources, is usually cheaper than PCR due to economies of scale and established supply chains. However, the plastic tax changes this dynamic. When the tax is factored in, using virgin plastic becomes more expensive than using PCR. This financial pressure forces manufacturers to reconsider their material choices.

For example, let’s assume the plastic tax is £150 per tonne of virgin plastic used. If a producer can avoid this tax by using PCR, the overall cost of production decreases, even if PCR is slightly more expensive per tonne than virgin plastic. Over large production runs, these savings can be substantial, making PCR an attractive alternative.

Shifting to PCR: Challenges and Opportunities

Switching from virgin plastic to PCR isn’t just about cost. Manufacturers also consider the quality and availability of PCR. Historically, PCR was seen as lower in quality compared to virgin plastic. Issues included colour inconsistency and reduced durability. However, advancements in recycling technologies have significantly improved the quality of PCR. It is now a viable option for many applications.

Increased demand for PCR allows for broader innovation in recycling processes. Companies need to invest in better sorting and cleaning technologies to produce higher quality recycled plastics. In theory, this creates a positive feedback loop: higher demand leads to better supply.

However, local availability of recycled plastic is crucial to maintaining a reduced carbon footprint. Transporting recycled plastic over long distances can negate the environmental benefits by increasing carbon emissions. By sourcing PCR locally, manufacturers can ensure a smaller carbon footprint and bolster local recycling industries. This local sourcing not only supports sustainability goals but also strengthens regional economies and creates jobs.

The Role of Consumer Preference

Consumer preferences also play a crucial role. Today’s consumers are more environmentally conscious than ever. They prefer products that are sustainable and have a lower environmental impact. Plastic bottle producers who use PCR can market their products as eco-friendly. This can boost sales and enhance brand reputation.

Marketing strategies often highlight the use of recycled materials. This appeals to consumers who seek greater sustainability. This consumer-driven demand for green products complements the financial incentives created by the plastic tax. It reinforces the move towards PCR.

The Utilisation of Recycled Plastic

Despite these positive trends, a critical question remains: Is all recycled plastic actually used? The answer is both yes and no.

A significant portion of recycled plastic is indeed used, but not all of it goes back into making new bottles. Recycled plastics are versatile and can be used in various applications. For instance, recycled PET (polyethylene terephthalate), commonly used in bottles, can be found in textiles, automotive parts, and packaging materials for non-food products. This diversity in applications helps ensure that most recycled plastic finds a use somewhere, even if it’s not in new bottles.

However, there are still challenges. Contamination of recycled materials can reduce their usability. Not all types of plastics are equally recyclable. For example, multi-layered plastics and certain coloured plastics are more challenging to recycle. As a result, not all plastic waste is converted into high-quality PCR. A notable portion of this unusable plastic, often estimated at around 20%, ends up in landfills or is incinerated, leading to environmental concerns.

The ultimate goal is to create a circular economy, so we can continuously recycle and reuse plastic. This minimises waste and the need for new raw materials. The plastic tax is a step towards this goal by making it financially unviable to rely solely on virgin plastics.

Closing the Loop: Circular Economy

Progressive manufacturers will increase the adoption of closed-loop systems. In these systems, used bottles are collected, recycled, and turned into new bottles. This approach meets the requirements of the plastic tax and aligns with broader sustainability goals. Some companies are, finally, setting targets to use 100% recycled or recyclable materials in their packaging.

One innovative solution in closed-loop systems is the use of Bottld reverse vending machines (RVMs). Convert Design has developed RVMs to make recycling convenient and efficient for consumers. Using multiple local hubs for production, collection and first stage processing, Bottld minimises the carbon footprint. Bottld machines accept used plastic bottles, scan them for recyclability, and provide instant rewards to users. This not only encourages consumer participation in recycling but also ensures a steady supply of clean, sorted plastic for recycling. The collected bottles are then processed and converted into high-quality PCR, which can be used to make new bottles. By integrating these reverse vending machines into their operations, manufacturers can effectively close the loop, reducing reliance on virgin plastics and meeting the demands of the plastic tax.


The plastic tax can be a powerful tool driving the use of post-consumer recycled plastics in the production of plastic bottles. By making virgin plastics more expensive, it encourages manufacturers to switch to PCR. Improved recycling technologies and growing consumer demand for sustainable products further support this shift. 

However, it’s important to question the true motivations behind these changes. Are producers and governments genuinely committed to environmental sustainability, or are they merely responding to financial incentives and consumer pressure? The cynical view suggests that profit margins often take precedence over genuine environmental concerns. While the plastic tax and consumer demand create a pathway towards sustainability, it’s crucial to remain vigilant. True progress will require continued innovation, strict enforcement of regulations, and a genuine commitment to reducing environmental impact. Only time will tell if these measures are more than just a way to boost profits and appease eco-conscious consumers.


1. European Commission. (2020). Plastic Tax: Green Deal Proposal.

2. Plastics Europe. (2021). Market data: Recycled plastics in Europe.

3. Ellen MacArthur Foundation. (2021). The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics & catalysing action.

4. National Geographic. (2020). Plastic Tax and its impact on the environment.

5. McKinsey & Company. (2021). The future of the plastics recycling market: How the plastics tax is reshaping the industry.